A horn is a sound-making device that can be equipped to motor vehicles, buses, bicycles, trains, trams (otherwise known as streetcars in North America), and other types of vehicles. The sound made usually resembles a \"honk\" (older vehicles) or a \"beep\" (modern vehicles). The driver uses the horn to warn others of the vehicle's approach or presence, or to call attention to some hazard. Motor vehicles, ships and trains are required by law in some countries to have horns. Like trams, trolley cars and streetcars, bicycles are also legally required to have an audible warning device in many areas, but not universally, and not always a horn.
Bicycles sometimes have a classic bulb horn, operated by squeezing a rubber bulb attached to a metal horn. Squeezing the bulb forces air through a steel reed located in the throat of the horn, making it vibrate, producing a single note. The flaring horn matches the acoustic impedance of the reed to the open air, radiating the sound waves efficiently, making the sound louder. Other types of horns used on bicycles include battery-operated horns (sometimes even car horns on 12-volt circuits are incorporated) and small air horns powered by a small can of compressed gas.
The radiators of modern cars no longer determine the shape of the grilles, which have become more abstract, the radiator being of different proportions from the grille and over 15 centimetres behind it. Now grilles are usually designed so the sound of a horn can readily come out through them. Those designs that echo the shape of the grille no longer have front fenders with rather large crevices that accommodate trumpet-shaped horns. Thus some cars, often British ones, have a pair of round horn grilles on either side of the radiator grille, with a horn behind each. A luxury car's horn grilles are usually chrome-plated.
Cars with rear engines, such as the Volkswagen Beetle and the early Porsches, necessarily have no radiator grilles in front, and so have horn grilles placed below their headlights. Some motor scooters have this feature as well, placed below the handlebars. Their horn grilles may be made of cheap plastic. These vehicles and the cheaper cars have only one horn.
Most modern streetcars, trams and trolley cars including low-floor vehicles around the world also employ horns or whistles as a secondary auditory warning signal in addition to the gong/bell which either use the sound of air horns or electric automobile car horns.
Various types of vehicle horns are used by percussionists as sound effects, or even melodically, in musical works. For example, George Gershwin's 1928 orchestral work An American in Paris calls for the use of 4 taxi horns. György Ligeti's opera Le Grand Macabre features two \"Car Horn Preludes\" scored for 12 bulb horns, each one tuned to a specific pitch.
A Klaxon is a type of an electromechanical horn or alerting device. Mainly used on cars, trains and ships, they produce an easily identifiable sound, often transcribed onomatopoeiacally in English as \"awooga\". Like most mechanical horns, they have largely been replaced by solid-state electronic alarms, though the memorable tone has persisted. Klaxon was originally a brand name.
The klaxon horn's characteristic sound is produced by a spring-steel diaphragm with a rivet in the center that is repeatedly struck by the teeth of a rotating cogwheel. The diaphragm is attached to a horn that acts as an acoustic transformer and controls the direction of the sound.
Klaxons were first fitted to automobiles and bicycles in 1908. They were originally powered by six-volt dry cells, and from 1911 by rechargeable batteries. Later hand-powered versions were used as military evacuation alarms and factory sirens. They were also used as submarine dive and surface alarms beginning in the Second World War.
The word Klaxon is often used in British game shows like Who Wants to Be a Millionaire on which on the final part of each program, if a contestant answers a question correctly and if the production team can't continue the game on the same episode, a musical chord produced by brass instruments sounds to stop the show. Some international hosts will call it the \"hooter\" or \"the horn\" or simply say \"That sound means we're out of time for today.\"
While motorists have argued that horn honking is a First Amendment-protected form of expression, courts have said otherwise. One horn honking case involved a traffic gridlock in Manhattan, like the one shown here. (Image of traffic in Manhattan via Environmental Protection Agency on Wikimedia Commons, public domain)
The honking of automobile horns has led to several First Amendment challenges in the courts. Generally, the issue arises after an individual has been cited under a city ordinance for honking a car horn for reasons unrelated to poor driving by a fellow motorist. The individual then claims a First Amendment right to honk as a means of protest.
The book, Danger Sound Klaxon! The Horn That Changed History (University of Virginia Press, 2023) shares how the metallic shriek of the horn first shocked pedestrians, improving safety, and how savvy advertising strategies convinced consumers across the United States and western Europe to adopt the horn as the safest signaling technology available in the 1910s.
The shrill-sounding horn improved early automobile safety and provided a positive impact for a communications technology, writes author Matt Jordan, associate professor and head of the department of film production and media studies at Penn State. The book chronicles how the technology went awry because of world events.
The widespread use of Klaxons in the trenches of World War I transformed how the public heard the car horn, according to Jordan, and its traumatic association with gas attacks ultimately doomed this once ubiquitous consumer technology.
Damage waiver (DW) for this branch ranges between $25 and $30 per day. DW is offered at the time of rental for an additional daily charge. If the renter accepts DW, Enterprise waives or reduces the renter's responsibility for loss of, or damage to, the rental vehicle (including but not limited to towing, storage, loss of use, administrative fees and or diminishment of value) subject to the terms and conditions of the rental agreement and applicable laws. DW is not insurance. The purchase of DW is optional and not required to rent a car. The protection provided by DW may duplicate the renter's existing coverage. Enterprise is not qualified to evaluate the adequacy of the renter's existing coverage; therefore the renter should examine his or her credit card protections, automobile insurance policies or other sources of coverage that may duplicate the protection provided by DW.
Horn honking: if you're like most drivers, you either you love it or you hate it! Some drivers use their horns to communicate effectively and alert other drivers, while plenty of others use horns to vent their traffic frustrations and perpetuate road rage. As a general rule, you should only use your vehicle's horn when absolutely necessary to insure safe driving. Whether you are new to driving or simply need a refresher, here are some basic honking etiquette tips to keep in mind.
Let's say that the brakes in your vehicle go out, you've blown a tire, or you spot a large object obstructing the road ahead of you. It is a good idea to use your horn to alert other drivers about equipment issues you are experiencing with your own car and about hazardous conditions that may be coming ahead.
Now let's say that the driver next to you begins swerving into your lane and you're afraid of getting side-swiped. Make just a quick beep of your horn to communicate to your neighbor that he's getting too close for comfort and should be more alert.
Contrary to popular belief, a vehicle's horn is not an instrument for letting other people know they're bad drivers! It's never a good idea to use your horn to tell drivers to get out of your way or that you don't like a driving move they just made. Road rage-related accidents often begin with unnecessary horn honking, and safety should always be your number one priority on the road. Unless other drivers are putting your life at risk, blasting your horn at them will only make them angry instead of convincing them to change their habits.
Keep in mind that honking is actually illegal in some cities during certain hours. When in doubt, don't use your horn when it's not necessary to keep you safe. Instead of honking your horn while waiting for your passengers to hurry up and join you, park your car and either call them or get out to ring the doorbell. Honking doesn't magically make traffic jams disappear, and the annoying sound of horns actually makes traffic even more unbearable for drivers. If you're sitting in traffic and can't manage to take an alternate route, take a moment to realize that there is very little you can do to clear it and try to relax and enjoy some peaceful music or a good conversation with your passengers. Another popular reason for honking is to show support for a cause, whether it's a fundraising campaign, a parade, a protest, or a wedding. Use these honks sparingly and if you feel particularly drawn to honk, make it a quick beep rather than a long, drawn-out blast.
THE DC TO HIGH FREQUENCY impedance of an automobile horn is calculated from detailed drawings for frequencies from zero to 200 MHZ. The calculations are made using the finite element method which accounts for magnetic skin and proximity effects due to eddy currents. Measurements with a high frequency network analyzer confirm the calculated complex impedance at various frequencies. This calculation method will enable the design engineer to know the EMC (Electromagnetic Compatibility) properties of any passive noise generator before prototype construction of components.
One of the first symptoms of an issue with the horn relay is a non-functioning horn. The horn relay is one of the components responsible for delivering power to the horn circuit. If the relay fails it will leave the horn without any power to function. 59ce067264