Glucosamine sulfate has a long history and an extensive body of research highlighting its role in protecting cartilage, the shock-absorbing, gel-like material located between the joints. As the key precursor to cartilage formation, glucosamine sulfate supports connective tissue health to provide full support for joint comfort, as well as integrity and movement, while maintaining normal inflammatory balance. Glucosamine sulfate is also a precursor to chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid, both of which are natural compounds found in the synovial fluid of cartilage. The Glucosamine Sulfate formula provides maximum support for healthy joint function.
Although exact mechanisms of action are yet to be established, research suggests that glucosamine supplementation helps modulate cytokine production in addition to directly stimulating chondrocytes (cartilage cells that help produce and maintain a healthy cartilage matrix), while aiding in the incorporation of sulfur into cartilage. Glucosamine has been found to maintain normal inflammatory balance and alleviate oxidative stress.
Glucosamine is also found in some animal and other nonhuman tissues, including shellfish shells, animal bones, and fungi. Supplemental forms of glucosamine are often made from these natural sources (2).
That being said, glucosamine and chondroitin have been shown to inhibit the activation of inflammatory pathways in human synovial cells. These cells are responsible for producing synovial fluid components, or joint fluid (5).
More specifically, it is thought that glucosamine promotes the creation of certain chemical compounds, including collagen, that are important structural components of articular cartilage and synovial fluid.
Glucosamine helps develop tissues that are crucial for proper joint function. While more studies are necessary, some research indicates that glucosamine supplements may protect your joints from damage.
Glucosamine supplements are frequently taken to treat various bone and joint conditions. Most scientific research on glucosamine has focused on the use of one specific form called glucosamine sulfate.
Multiple studies indicate that taking daily glucosamine sulfate supplements may offer effective, long-term treatment for OA by significantly reducing pain, helping maintain joint space, and slowing disease progression (9, 10, 11, 12).
One small study showed a significant reduction in pain and inflammatory markers as well as increased jaw mobility in participants who received a combined supplement of glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin (23).
Most research supports the use of glucosamine-sulfate solely for managing OA symptoms, but even then, evidence remains inconclusive. Based on available studies, the supplement is less likely to be effective for any other conditions.
Also, know that glucosamine may have a small hypoglycemic effect in people with type 2 diabetes, though the risk is relatively low. If you have diabetes or are taking diabetes medications, talk with your doctor before taking glucosamine (6).
Background Conventional symptomatic treatments for osteoarthritis do not favorably affect disease progression. The aim of this randomized, placebo-controlled trial was to determine whether long-term (3-year) treatment with glucosamine sulfate can modify the progression of joint structure and symptom changes in knee osteoarthritis, as previously suggested.
Methods Two hundred two patients with knee osteoarthritis (using American College of Rheumatology criteria) were randomized to receive oral glucosamine sulfate, 1500 mg once a day, or placebo. Changes in radiographic minimum joint space width were measured in the medial compartment of the tibiofemoral joint, and symptoms were assessed using the algo-functional indexes of Lequesne and WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities).
A joint is the area where two bones and their respective connective tissues come together. With there being 206 bones in the adult body, you can imagine there are also a lot of joints. Some of these joints are fixed in place or only offer slight movement such as where the bones of the pelvis have fused together.
However, the most common type of joints in the body are movable joints. There are many types of synovial joints and their structure dictates their type of movement. The ball-and-socket joint of the shoulder allows rotation in many directions whereas the hinge joint of the elbow bends and straightens the arm in one direction.
Glucosamine is a compound found in nearly all human tissues, especially connective tissue. The highest concentrations of glucosamine in the human body are found in cartilage.2 It is especially good for anyone seeking supplemental ingredients found within joints and connective tissue.
Glucosamine contributes to joint health.*It is a key structural component in cartilage and, as a dietary supplement, can be absorbed into the body. Supplementing with 1500 mg of glucosamine a day is the most recommended dosage.
The most common source of glucosamine used in dietary supplements is shellfish. The hard exoskeletons of crustaceans such as crabs and shrimp contain a substance called chitin. Chitin is a rich source of glucosamine and acts as the starting material for many dietary supplements. Glucosamine can also be found in the cell walls of plants and fungi, making shellfish-free forms of glucosamine available.
Although glucosamine is naturally produced by the body, levels of glucosamine may decline with age. There are no major food sources of glucosamine so it is challenging to get in your daily diet without the help from supplementation.
Chondroitin sulfate is a naturally-occurring nutrient found in various types of connective tissue such as cartilage, bone, ligaments and tendons. The structure of chondroitin sulfate causes it to attract water which is good news for your joints.
Glucosamine is a nutrient whose levels in the body may decline with age. As such, it should be consumed on a regular basis. Just as you would take a multivitamin every day to ensure your body is getting all the vitamins and minerals it needs, glucosamine should be taken daily to deliver nutrition to your joints.*
This is a prescription discount plan. This is NOT insurance nor a Medicare prescription drug plan. The range of prescription discounts provided under this discount plan will vary depending on the prescription and pharmacy where the prescription is purchased and can be up to 80% off the cash price. You are fully responsible for paying your prescriptions at the pharmacy at the time of service, but you will be entitled to receive a discount from the pharmacy in accordance with the specific pre-negotiated discounted rate schedule. Pharmacy names, logos, brands, and other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.Towers Administrators LLC (operating as 'SingleCare Administrators') is the authorized prescription discount plan organization with its administrative office located at 4510 Cox Road, Suite 111, Glen Allen, VA 23060. SingleCare Services LLC ('SingleCare') is the vendor of the prescription discount plan, including their website.website at www.singlecare.com. For additional information, including an up-to-date list of pharmacies, or assistance with any problems related to this prescription drug discount plan, please contact customer service toll free at 844-234-3057, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week (except major holidays). By using the SingleCare prescription discount card or app, you agree to the SingleCare Terms and Conditions found at -and-conditions
Glucosamine (2-amino-2-deoxy-β-d-glucopyranose) is an endogenous aminomonosaccharide synthesized from glucose and utilized for biosynthesis of glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans.9 Glucosamine is present in almost all human tissues, highly concentrated in connective tissues of the human body, and found at highest concentrations in the cartilage. In humans, about 90 percent of glucosamine is absorbed when administered as an oral dose of glucosamine sulfate, and is rapidly incorporated into articular cartilage.10 Glucosamine can be found in many forms, including sulfate, hydrochloride, N-acetyl-glucosamine, or chlorohydrate salt, and as a dextrorotatory isomer. There is some dispute over which form is most effective. Pooled findings from studies using a specific commercial glucosamine sulfate product called Dona suggest that this formulation reduces osteoarthritis pain, whereas other formulations do not.11 Another study performed in China provides some evidence that glucosamine hydrochloride and glucosamine sulfate are equally effective.12
The sulfate salt of glucosamine forms one half of the disaccharide subunit of keratan sulfate, which decreases in patients with osteoarthritis. Hyaluronic acid (found in articular cartilage and synovial fluid) is composed of repeating dimeric units of glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine.13 Possible mechanisms of action for the chondroprotective effect of glucosamine include direct stimulation of chondrocytes, incorporation of sulfur into cartilage, and protection against degradative processes within the body through altered gene expression.10,14,15 The exact mechanism of action for the possible effect of glucosamine is unknown.
Two of the largest placebo-controlled trials conducted before 2007 were in Europe and used the glucosamine sulfate formulation.4,5 In the 2001 Belgian study, 212 persons with osteoarthritis of the knee were followed for three years, received either placebo or oral glucosamine sulfate in a dosage of 1,500 mg daily, and were evaluated using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) osteoarthritis index.4 The WOMAC index is the most commonly employed questionnaire in clinical research to assess degree of pain and stiffness, as well as functional impairment caused by osteoarthritis. The study showed that patients taking glucosamine sulfate had modest pain reduction (average of 11.7 percent relative reduction in the WOMAC index compared with baseline) and reduced joint-space narrowing compared with placebo, as measured by weight-bearing anteroposterior view radiography (0.06 mm versus 0.31 mm). Both differences were statistically significant; however, there was no correlation between improvement in symptoms and radiographic findings.4 59ce067264